2019:

L-DAA: Lattice-Based Direct Anonymous Attestation, Nada El Kassem and Liqun Chen (Surrey), Jan Camenisch (IBM), Rachid El Bansarkhani (TU Darmstadt), Ali El Kaafarani and Patrick Hough (Oxford)

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Abstract: The Cloud-Edges (CE) framework, wherein small groups of Internet of Things (IoT) devices are serviced by local edge devices, enables a more scalable solution to IoT networks. The trustworthiness of the network may be ensured with Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs). This small hardware chip is capable of measuring and reporting a representation of the state of an IoT device. When connecting to a network, the IoT platform might have its state signed by the TPM in an anonymous way to prove both its genuineness and secure state through the Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) protocol. Currently standardised DAA schemes have their security supported on the factoring and discrete logarithm problems. Should a quantum-computer become available in the next few decades, these schemes will be broken. There is therefore a need to start developing a post-quantum DAA protocol. This paper presents a Lattice-based DAA (LDAA) scheme to meet this requirement. The security of this scheme is proved in the Universally Composable (UC) security model under the hardness assumptions of the Ring Inhomogeneous Short Integer Solution (Ring-ISIS) and Ring Learning With Errors (Ring-LWE) problems. Compared to the only other post-quantum DAA scheme available in related art, the storage requirements of the TPM are reduced twofold and the signature sizes 5 times. Moreover, experimental results show that the signing and verification operations are accelerated 1.1 and 2.0 times, respectively.


2018:

Implementing RLWE-based Schemes Using an RSA Co-Processor, Martin R. Albrecht, Christian Hanser, Andrea Hoeller, Thomas Pöppelmann, Fernando Virdia and Andreas Wallner

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Abstract: We repurpose existing RSA/ECC co-processors for (ideal) lattice-based cryptography by exploiting the availability of fast long integer multiplication. Such co-processors are deployed in smart cards in passports and identity cards, secured microcontrollers and hardware security modules (HSM). In particular, we demonstrate an implementation of a variant of the Module-LWE-based Kyber Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) that is tailored for optimal performance on a commercially available smart card chip (SLE 78). To benefit from the RSA/ECC co-processor we use Kronecker substitution in combination with schoolbook and Karatsuba polynomial multiplication. Moreover, we speed-up symmetric operations in our Kyber variant using the AES co-processor to implement a PRNG and a SHA-256 co-processor to realise hash functions. This allows us to execute CCA-secure Kyber768 key generation in 79.6 ms, encapsulation in 102.4 ms and decapsulation in 132.7 ms.